Nanopharmaceuticals are the newest generation of novel drugs delivery systems. There is lot of extensive ongoing research studies, and remarkable investments being made in this new area of medicine. Nanopharmaceuticals represent an transpire field where the sizes of the drug particle or a therapeutic delivery system work at the nanoscale. Nanopharmaceuticals offer the advantage to detect diseases at much earlier stages and the diagnostic applications can be made upon conventional procedures using nanoparticles. In the pharmaceutical industry, the major drawback is the difficulty of delivering the appropriate dose of a particular active ingredient to specific targeted disease site. Nanopharmaceuticals have wide potential in attending this failure of conventional drugs delivery systems that could not be formulated effectively because of factors such as poor water solubility, toxicity issues, low bioavailability, or lack of target specificity (e.g., delivering the drug to a specific tissue site). Such specific targeting via nanopharmaceuticals lower down toxic systemic side effects, resulting in better patient compliance. Nanopharmaceuticals are colloidal particles of 10 to 1,000 nanometers (1 micron) in size. They are widely used carriers in drug delivery systems. Nanopharmaceuticals are distinct both in their shape and composition and often advantageous over their “bulk” counterparts primarily because of their size. There are two types of nanopharmaceuticals: (1) those where the therapeutic molecules are themselves the drug (i.e., the therapeutic compound itself also functions as its own carrier); and (2) those where the therapeutic molecules are directly coupled (functionalized, entrapped, or coated) to a nanoparticle carrier. Nanomaterials such as Dendrimers, Nanotubes, Nanocages Nanoliposomes, Drug Nano crystal, Qutantumdots, Nanocapsules, Micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. have been applying in Pharma industries for developing more improved and effective products. There are wide opportunities for the development of novel drug delivery systems by using concept of nanotechnonolgy because nanonization of drug improves bioavailability, solubility, drug tragetibility and patient compliance, reduces toxicity and dose. Many problems related to conventional drug delivery systems such as side effects, non-site specific delivery, especially in cancer therapy, has been solved successfully by using the concept nanotechnolog. But, more studies on toxicology and immune systems induction should be carried out for implementation of these new technologies into mainstream health services.
Key Words: Nanoparticles; Nanocarriers; Nanomaterials; Nanopharmaceuticals; Nanoliposomes; Novel drugs delivery