The aims of the present study are to assess the phytochemical screening, investigate the chemical constituents of the Essential Oil from H. sabdariffa (L) Seeds, (Sudanese Karkadi) and to evaluate its potential antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Using Soxhlet method to extract the essential oil from H. sabdariffa (L) Seeds. The chemical constituents of H. sabdariffa (L) Oil were identified and quantified by GC-MS, where DPPH and paper disc diffusion assay were employed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities respectively. Phytochemical screening results showed that Alkaloids, Flavonoid, Carbohydrate, Saponins, Triterpen, Streol, Tannins and phenolic compounds are present in seeds of the H. sabdariffa. Thirty eight components has been identified which classified in to four categories; 31 fatty acid ester derivatives , the majority of them are: Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (16.94%),9,12- Octadecadienoic acid(Z,Z) -, methyl ester (21.93%) ,9, -Octadecadienoic acid (Z)-, methyl ester (30.11%), methyl stearate(7.39%), Cyclopropaneoctanoic acid (3.17 %) , Dotriacontane(2.17 %), three phenolic derivatives, 1,3-Benzodioxole,4methoxy-6-(2-propenyl)- (0.01 %) , Apiol (0.04 %) and 17 Androstannone, 3-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl) (1.81 %) , three Pentacyclic triterpenes derivatives, Beta.-Amyrin (3.82%) (3.17 %), Alpha.-Amyrin (1.65 %) and Dodecanoic acid ,methyl ester (0.01 %), and one stroide derivative, Stigmasta-4,7,22-trien-3.beta.-ol (0.41%).The DPPH assay, showed moderate antioxidant potential (50 ± 0.01 compared with standard 89 ± 0.01; the antibacterial showed high inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis (13mm). In conclusion, the results showed that the Oil of H. sabdariffa seeds is a good source of antioxidants due to the presence of phenolic compounds, also is a potential source of natural antibacterial, and justify its uses in folkloric medicines.
Keywords: Phytochemical Screening, GC-MS Analysis, Antimicrobial and antioxidant Activity