A Cross-sectional Study to Compare Hepatitis B Immunity in HIV Infected and Uninfected Kenyan Children Following Primary Immunization against the Hepatitis B Virus
Mbuthia J1*, Kabera B1, Karuga R2, Ivui G1, Mainye S1, Chanzu NM1 Digolo L2
1Gertrude’s Children’s Hospital, Kenya
2LVCT Health, Kenya
Citation: Mbuthia J, Kabera B, Karuga R, Ivui G, Mainye S, Chanzu NM, Digolo L (2019) A Cross-sectional Study to Compare Hepatitis B Immunity in HIV Infected and Uninfected Kenyan Children Following Primary Immunization against the Hepatitis B Virus. SciTech Infectious Diseases 2020. Mauritius
Received: September 04, 2019 Accepted: September 11, 2019 Published: September 13, 2019
Background: Children infected with HIV have been reported to show poor primary immune responses to vaccination. Additionally, their immune responses to vaccination wane more rapidly when compared to HIV uninfected children. This study was designed to evaluate presence of protective antibody levels against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) in HIV infected children compared to HIV uninfected children.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study at the Gertrude’s Garden Children’s Hospital, Kenya. A total of 531 children who had received the three doses of hepatitis B vaccine during infancy according to the recommendation by the Ministry of Health, Kenya were enrolled into the study. Anti-HBs levels were evaluated in serum samples on a Gemini Compact Microplate Processor while HIV sero-status was confirmed retrospectively from the individual hospital records.
Results: Study participants were aged between 0.3 and 15 years with a mean age of 1.9 years for HIV infected children and 0.9 years in the HIV uninfected group; 191 were HIV infected and 340, HIV uninfected. A total of 18.3% (35/191) from the HIV infected group and 74.4% (253/340) from the HIV uninfected group had protective levels of anti-HBs above 10mIU/L. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.0001) and was observed across all age groups.
Conclusion: Majority (72%) of HIV infected children aged up to 15 years had no protective antibodies to HBV following immunization in infancy. There is need to review and develop an effective (HBV) immunization program for HIV infected children in this setting.