Buruli ulcer is a mycobacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The infection affects skin through the production of an exotoxin that causes necrosis of hypodermic fat. Children are the main target of the infection. In Togo, some data are available. We reported the epidemiological situation in the five regions of Togo between 2010 and 2015. From 2010 to 2015, three hundred and fifty-three (353) cases were reported of the 362 suspect cases received in the two Buruli ulcer care units were confirmed by clinical presentation, microscopy or PCR. 165 cases were confirmed by microscopy representing 46.75% of confirmation. 271 cases were confirmed by PCR, which represents 76.77% of confirmation.
The male and children between 1 and 15 years are the most affected (116 cases, 33%). The most represented cases are ulceration (169 cases, 48%) and the WHO category I (126 cases, 37%). Buruli ulcer mainly affects the lower right limb (90 cases, 25%).
The number of HIV-positive BU patients is 4 out of a total of 83 BU patients. All patients are HIV-1 positive. HIV prevalence among BU patients is 4.8% compared to 2.5% nationally and 3% at regional level. Three BU patients are seropositive out of a total of 46 female patients while one patient under 15 years is seropositive out of a total of 37 male BU patients. There is a greater proportion of female patients with BU/HIV coinfections.
The Maritime Region, especially Zio District, is the location where most of the cases were recorded. It appears that in-depth studies must be carried out to understand the factors of the elevated numbers of Buruli ulcer cases in the Maritime Region.
Key words: Buruli ulcer, epidemiology, epidemiological status, Togo, Sub-Saharan Africa