Background: Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation. Diabetes is a growing challenge in India with estimated 8.7% diabetic population (between 20-70yrs). While macrovascular disease is the primary pathogenic mechanism underlying CHD, microvascular disease may play a prominent role in CHD development in diabetic individuals. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a specific marker of microvascular disease in type 2 diabetes. It is unclear, however, if the presence of diabetic retinopathy signifies an increased risk of CHD.
- To assess the proportion of DR and 10-year risk of developing CHD among study subjects
- To assess the relationship between DR and CHD risk.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted between Jan–Nov 2019 at a tertiary hospital in Tumkur among patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Data was collected using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and subjects were examined for fundal changes of DR using indirect ophthalmoscope and 10-year risk of developing CHD using the WHO/ISH scoring
Results: Among the study subjects, 65% were male, 74.3% were on oral hypoglycemic drugs, 12.9% had family history of CHD. DR was seen in 49.3% of study subjects. 10% of study subjects had ≥40% risk of developing CHD. There was a statistically significant association between DR and risk of CHD (p<0.01).
Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy may be associated with increased CVD risk. A careful cardiovascular assessment and follow-up may be required in individuals with diabetic retinopathy.
Key words: Diabetic Retinopathy, risk, Coronary Heart Disease, tertiary care hospital