Received: December 08, 2019 Accepted: December 10, 2019 Published: December 10, 2019
Artemisia sp., especially A. annua and A. afra, have been used for centuries to treat many ailments. While artemisinin is the main therapeutically active component, emerging evidence demonstrates that the other phytochemicals in this genus are also therapeutically active. Those compounds include flavonoids, other terpenes, coumarins, and phenolic acids. Artemisia sp. phytochemicals also improve bioavailability of artemisinin and synergistically improve artemisinin therapeutic efficacy, especially when delivered as dried leaf Artemisia as a tea infusion or as powdered dry leaves in a capsule or compressed into a tablet. Here results from in vitro, and in vivo animal and human studies are summarized and critically discussed for mainly malaria, but also other diseases susceptible to artemisinin and Artemisia sp. including schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis.
Keywords: Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra , Artemisinin resistance, Bioavailability, Leishmaniasis , Malaria, Schistosomiasis, Trypanosomiasis