Background: The Federal Ministry of Health of Ethiopia Annual performance report in 2014/15 showed that the highest prevalence of Tuberculosis (TB) case in Ethiopia was reported from Dire- Dawa city which was 400/100,000 population. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis in public health facilities of Dire-Dawa city, Eastern Ethiopia.
Methods: A case-control study was conducted from October to December of 2017 among 95 cases and 190 controls in Dire-Dawa city. Dire Dawa is one of the two chartered city in Ethiopia like the capital city Addis Ababa. Cases and controls were identified and selected randomly from the health facilities. Data were collected using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire by trained data collectors. We used logistic regression to model the associations of independent variables with pulmonary tuberculosis infection.
Results: Pulmonary Tuberculosis was associated with patients education (no formal education vs. formal education) (Adjusted Odds Ratio(95% Confidence Interval): 3.0, (1.3,7.1)), HIV positive status (AOR(95%CI): 3.1: (1.1,9.1)), previous contact history with TB patient (AOR(95% CI): 9.9 (4.3,23.0)), Body Mass Index of ≤ 18 (AOR(95% CI): 14.9 (6.4,35.1)) and cigarette smoking history(Ever vs. Never) (AOR (95%CI): 6.7 (2.3,19.5)).
Conclusion: This study showed that patients’ educational status, HIV status, Cigarette smoking, contact history with pulmonary TB patient and Body Mass Index were independently associated with being infected with pulmonary TB. To reduce Pulmonary TB transmission, peoples should be educated on TB prevention and consequences of risky behaviors.