A disease is said to be an emerging disease when it is a completely new infection or has recently increased in Incidence or impact or severity affecting newer geographical locations or is an existing disease that has developed a new clinical pattern or developed resistance to existing therapy.Reappearence of a disease which was once endemic but had since been eradicated or controlled would classify it as Reemerging Infectious diseases.
We have experienced some major epidemics of infectious diseases over the centuries.It was believed that the famous Aztec civilization was reduced to ashes by small pox infections carried by explorers.The European population was destroyed by Plague-about one third over just 5 year period.If we go by numbers definitely the Old world infectious diseases are ebbing however a slew of newer and unknown communicable diseases are on rise.Morever MDR and XDR tuberculoisis and malarial infections resistance to Artemisin Combination therapy is a Global threat and would require a concerted effort.
The Emerging Infectious diseases are responsible for 26% of annual Deaths Worldwide. Nearly 30% 0f 1.49 billion disability adjusted Life years are lost every year to Infectious origin.This burden falls heavily on people in developing countries and particuraly on Infants and Children. Control-Concreted effort
World Health Organization has made several recommendations for nations are-
Epidemic Preparedness-The always on button
Rapid response-Teams and Individual
Public Health Infrastructure development
Risk Communication-Utmist importance
Advocacy for political Commitment-Realistic
Partnership Building and collaboration
Countries must have comprehensive national strategy on Infectious diseases addressing challenges of Emerging and Reemerging diseases cutting across all sectors both Government and Non Government.Provisions should be made for estabilishing centers for excellence and should have networking and partnerships with all identifiable stake holders