Metagenomics Reveals Seasonality of Human PathogenicBacteria from Hand-Dug Well Water in the Cuvelai Etosha Basin of Namibia.
Billy Mc Benedict1,2*, Wilhelmina Ndapunikwa Hauwanga3, Heike Wanke4, Percy Maruwa Chimwamurombe5 and Bernard Mudenda Hangombe2
1Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, School of Public Health, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Namibia, Oshakati West, Namibia.
2 Microbiology Unit, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
3 Department of Natural Resource Management, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Windhoek, Namibia.
4Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of the West of England(UWE), Bristol
5 Department of Natural and Applied Sciences, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Windhoek, Namibia.
Citation: Benedict BMC, Hauwanga WN, Wanke H, Chimwamurombe PM, Hangombe BM (2021) Metagenomics Reveals Seasonality of Human PathogenicBacteria from Hand-Dug Well Water in the Cuvelai Etosha Basin of Namibia. SciTech Immuno-Microbiology 2021.
Received: October 11, 2021 Accepted: October 11, 2021 Published: October 11, 2021
Namibia is a large country with a population slightly above 2 million of which 73% live in rural areas. It is the driest country in sub-Saharan Africa with unpredictable rainfall patterns which occurbetween October and May. The CuvelaiEtosha Basin is a rural setting in which most people depend on ground water to circumvent water scarcity by the construction of hand-dug wells. Communities consumehand-dug well water throughout the year without; knowledge of its safety, and treatment prior to use.Hence, this study aimed at evaluating the seasonal safety and quality of hand-dug well water for humanconsumption. A 16S rRNA metagenomics study was conducted to explore the influence of season onthe human pathogenic bacterial species richness, diversity, evenness and abundance in the hand-dugwells. Bacterial pathogens were identified and analysis revealed no significant difference in speciesrichness and diversity, and a significant difference in species evenness and abundance between thewet and dry seasons. Hence, seasonality had an influence on human bacterial pathogens evenness andabundance but had no influence on species richness and diversity. In addition, the water in hand-dugwells of the CuvelaiEtosha Basin is not safe for consumption and domestic use unless sanitized. It isrecommended that efforts should be made to treat the water prior to use, and hand-dug wells shouldbe properly constructed to reduce contamination.
Keywords: Cuvelai etosha basin, Hand-dug well, Human bacterial pathogens, Metagenomics, Water