Organic fertilizers are plant fertilizers derived from animal matter, animal excreta (manure), human excreta, and vegetable matter (e.g. compost and crop residues). Naturally occurring organic fertilizers include animal wastes from meat processing, manure, slurry, and guano.
This research was carried out to study the production, bio-safety and the chemistry of organic fertilizer at different proportion using same substrate made up of neem seeds, rice husk, blood meal, bone meal, calcium carbonate in five different formulations; by mixing and blending using a mixer and hammer mill. A proximate analysis was carried out using standard procedures to determine the plant’s nutritive value of the formulated organic fertilizer for the presence of nitrogen by Khadjel distillation method, phosphorus by Bray No.1 method, Potassium by flame spectrophotometer, Organic Carbon by Wakley- Black dichromate method and other micronutrients (Sodium, Magnesium, and Calcium). Nitrogen which is required by plants for the production of chlorophyll which is necessary for the plant to synthesis its food using sunlight, it is the major component of amino acids, the major constituents of protein. Phosphorus is primarily used for the growth and repair of body cells and tissues. Potassium is required by plants to maintain the turgor pressure of the cell by keeping the cell strong. The result from the analysis indicated following based on the N.P.K content in each. Formulation 1 (N=4810mg/kg, P=4.76mg/kg, K=1166.7mg/kg), Formulation 2 (N= 7140mg/kg, P=19.83mg/kg, K = 1250mg/kg, Formulation 3 (N= 4060mg/kg, P=19.39mg/kg, K=600mg/kg), Formulation 4 (N=7700mg/kg,P=19.28mg/kg, K = 650mg/kg) and Formulation 5 ( N= 148400mg/kg,P= 20.10mg/kg, K=600mg/kg). The result shows that formulation 5 had the highest percentage of nitrogen content (N=148400mg/kg) while formulation 3 had the lowest percentage of nitrogen (N=40600mg/kg) which is due to the increase in proportion of blood meal, poultry litters and neem seeds. This is required for the growth and development of green leaves and vegetative part of some plant that require high quantity of Nitrogen as a macro nutrient. This indicates that organic fertilizer could be a better substitute to conventional inorganic fertilizer as a soil conditioner and good plant manure when applied based on the soil nutrient requirements.