Introduction: Anencephaly is a common & lethal neural tube defect (NTD) which occurs due to the defective closure of rostral pore of neural tube. The study aims to identify the risk factors associated with anencephaly in our population. Attempt was made to correlate the incidence of anencephaly with associated systemic and congenital anomalies, maternal factors, biochemical analysis of mother for ACE, alpha fetoprotein, folic acid & random blood sugar.
Material & Method: The present study included 60 anencephalic fetuses of 20-30 weeks & mothers of the fetuses from Victoria & Vani Vilas hospital attached to Bangalore Medical College & Research Institute. Study was conducted over a time period of 3 years from August 2014 to June 2017.
Results: The incidence of anencephaly in Victoria and Vanivilas hospital was 1.04 in 1000 births. 23 (38.4%) were males & 37(61.6%) were females. The alpha fetoprotein is high in 100% of cases & ACE level was normal in 85 % cases, in 1.6% it was high & in 13.4% cases it was low. In 15%, folic acid was low & 15% cases were hyperglycemic.
Conclusion: Better knowledge of unexpected fetal loss is the promise for better parental counseling & for prevention of recurrences. Understanding & identifying the risk factors associated with anencephaly in our population, allows approaches to avoid them & there by lower the incidence of anencephaly in our population.
Keywords: Neural tube defect, Maternal diabetes, Random blood sugar