International Congress on Food Sciences
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Accepted Abstracts

Health Impacts of Aflatoxin and Control of Aflatoxigenic Fungi

Temesgen Assefa*
Debre Berhan University, Ethopia

Citation: Assefa T (2020) Health Impacts of Aflatoxin and Control of Aflatoxigenic Fungi. SciTech Food Sciences 2020. Mauritius  

Received: October 18, 2019         Accepted: November 04, 2019         Published: November 07, 2019

Abstract

Aflatoxins are a group of related fungal metabolites primarily produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin is a global food safety concern with rural subsistence farming communities in developing countries being the populations most at risk of aflatoxin exposure. The A. flavus biosynthetic pathway consists of approximately 23 enzymatic reactions and at least 15 intermediates encoded by 25 identified genes clustered within a 70-kb DNA region on chromosome III and the process is driven by a type II polyketide synthase. Aflatoxin contamination is the main food safety problem for field crops produced in tropical and subtropical climate regions where high temperature and humidity promote growth and proliferation of Aspergillus spp. Foods and feeds, especially cereal grains, are susceptible to invasion by molds during pre-harvest, processing, transportation, or storage. Aflatoxins impose effects in both economic and health sectors where the crisis leads to death of human biengs and animals. It is associated with various diseases; aflatoxicosis in livestock, domestic animals and humans worldwide. The most well established health effect of chronic exposure are hepatocellular carcinoma impaired child growth and immune suppression. To minimize the risk of aflatoxicosis, there are several physical, chemical and biological methods available, but the biological strategies are safest and well effective. Therefore, this review was aimed to critically show the health impact of aflatoxins and the promising strategies against aflatoxin contamination. Keywords: Aflatoxin, Aspergillus, biocontrol, contamination