Corona virus, the name originates from the morphology (In Latin, corona means crown), spherical in shape and a group of single-stranded RNA virus, which can be categorized into four subfamilies viz., α, β, γ and δ coronavirus. SARS-CoV-2, a novel β-corona virus is zoonotic pathogen that causes fatal symptom after emerging into human population. Initially, it has emerged in Wuhan, which is responsible for COVID-19. It spread rapidly worldwide, WHO announced a COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. The genome of corona virus contains 6 – 11 of open reading frames, two-thirds of viral RNA located in the first ORF encodes 16 non-structural proteins, while remaining ORFs encode accessory and structural proteins. Genome sequencing results suggested that it might be transmitted from bats via unknown intermediate hosts to infect humans. COVID-19 primarily spread through the respiratory tract. ACE2 found in the lower respiratory tract of humans, the replication of the virus starts with the interaction between its spike protein and ACE2 receptor. Standard method for diagnosing the viral infection is nucleic acid testing. Now, an IgM-IgG combined assay was developed to diagnose COVID-19, a combination of nucleic acid and IgM-IgG testing is more sensitive and accurate for diagnosis. Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial drug has an activity against SARS-CoV-2. It may inhibit viral enzymes or processes and also inhibit ACE2 cellular receptor. But it is not approved by the FDA and ICMR also warned against the use of HCQ without a medical prescription. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the public to wear face coverings where social distancing measures are difficult to maintain, individuals who are at high risk of COVID-19 related complications should consider the precautions such as avoid close contact with sick people, wash hands often, stay home as much as possible and develop a plan in case of illness. The government of several countries implemented the strategies as COVID-19 has swept across the world to stop disease spread such as mass testing, contact tracing, firm guidelines, social distancing, home self-isolation, school and business closures.
Key words: Corona virus structure, ACE2 receptor, Nucleic acid testing, IgM-IgG assay, Hydroxychloroquine, Precautions.