Cancerous condition is the result of abnormal cellular division. The cells prone to cancer exhibit complexed behavioral abnormalities and disobedience to the normal cellular signaling pathways. Benign and malignant cancers show different proliferative behavior depending on the type of cells, their location, and function. The cancerous tissues have increased vascular supply and a lower ratio of the rate of conversion of oxy-hemoglobin to deoxy-hemoglobin. In the tissues, like the dense radiographic breast, show some morphological changes in the cell organelles like nuclei. The non-invasive diffuse optical tomography and the diffuse correlation spectroscopy techniques help predict the comparative physiopathological biomarkers in cancerous and normal healthy tissues. The carbon nanomaterials are available as hollow tubes, spherical and elliptical or sheet shapes, and these are suitable for biomedical applications. Their modifications and fabrications to make biocompatible are convenient and exhibit a high degree of biocompatibility and biodistribution. The concerned amendments incorporate attachment of carboxyl or ammonium group, noncovalent functionalization like van der Waals, π-π, and hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions; the hollow carbon nanomaterials can be filled with different drugs and deliver them to the desired target sites. These specially coated nanovehicles deliver their goods at a particular site. Thus, these products act as suitable agents for carrying antiviral drugs, antibiotics, anticancer drugs, agents for imaging, thermal ablation. All these intentions need careful examinations, applications at laboratory, clinical, and mass-scale production, keeping in mind the environmental, judicial, and human tendencies of getting more and more.