Recent studies on psychological stress have extensively discussed the interaction of the psychological sequel with the human immune system. Prolonged exposure to stress may hamper the accessibility to coping resources, subsequently leading to depression in people. Depression, a major affective disorder, affects the quality of life of patients with HIV and HIV progression; the primary effector of stress response is the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which has been assessed on the basis of cortisol levels. Studies have indicated that Cortisol reduced levels of interleukin (IL)-12, a major proinflammatory cytokine and promoter of cell-mediated immunity, in rats. Elucidating the correlation between cortisol and IL-12 cytokine in HIV patients with and without depression may facilitate the understanding of the association of psychological depression with the immune system of patients with HIV.
Purposive sampling method is employed for the study of 80 patients with Anti-retro viral therapy and 80 patients with pre Anti-retro viral therapy were planned for inclusion in the study. Later Beck’s Depression scale was administered and based on the scoring classified in to Depressed and Non Depressed group in both ART and Pre ART patients with HIV. Classified groups were sent to the physician examination for Screening out WHO Stage 3 and WHO stage 4 patients.
Based on Becks depression scoring and interpretation of depression and Non depression classification is done. Based on Spectrophotometric Elisa Analysis IL12 cytokine and cortisol is analyzed and scored. The following statistical techniques are applied to analyze the scores and verify the hypotheses; Pearson correlation coefficient, t test for independent means, Logistic regression, Relative Risk. Ratio on the basis of Pearson correlation coefficient There is a significant inverse relationship between IL12 cytokine and cortisol in depressed HIV patients. It was found that Cortisol is significantly higher in depressed HIV patients as compared to Non depressed HIV patients and on other hand in IL 12 cytokine is significantly lower in depressed HIV patients as compared to Non depressed HIV patients. Based on logistic regression it is found that Factors like smoking, alcohol, spouse death, education level are the relative risk factors contributing to increased cortisol in patients with HIV.
Keywords: Cortisol, Interlukin, Depreesion, HIV