Cell therapies have been originally developed for regenerative medicine and hematological diseases. Recently, all these technologies have been applied to a variety of other applications including infections-related disease addressing the potential role of cells in controlling both inflammation and infections driven cancers. We have been exploring the possibility to control the consequences of prevalent infections in Brazil, like Chagas disease, by Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC). MSC potential has been challenged in their capacity to modulate inflammatory responses to ultimately achieve a regenerative function with a specific focus on myocarditis. In this paper, we will share this experience based on pre-clinical models outlining the potentials and limitation of this MSC based technology. In the same path, we have been recently involved in a new project using cell therapy for virus related cancer in particular for hepatocellular carcinoma. In this context, rather than MSC we will rely on gene modified lymphocytes targeting HCV-related antigens. Here we will explore the bioprocess optimization and translation of lymphocytes based-therapies into clinical investigations. Collectively, this presentation will spam from MSC to lymphocytes to share the plausibility to rely on cell to counteract still deadly diseases.