Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the leading causes of liver diseases with an estimated mortality of 686 000 deaths annually. Nigeria is endemic with 18 million (10%) infected among the population. This study examines the prevalence of HBV infection and risk factors among pregnant women attending three Antenatal Care (ANC) Clinics in Abeokuta, Nigeria. After Ethical Clearance, blood samples collected from 280 consenting pregnant women have their sera samples tested for Hepatitis Surface Antigen (HBsAg) using Bioline Strip ( Rapid test kit, Nantong Egens Biotechnology Co., Ltd) and confirmed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA (ELISA kits, Bio-rad France). Other HBV serological markers - Envelop antigen (HBeAg)., Envelop Antibodies (HBeAb) and Core Antibodies (HBcAb) from 26-HBsAg positive patients were tested using ELISA. Bio-data such as age, education, religion, occupation, family structure and risk factors such as tribal marks, tattoos, previous surgical intervention, genital mutilation, drug abuse including intravenous addiction, parity, un-protective sexual behavior, history of abortion, traditional birth, hospitalization, blood transfusion, chronic liver disease, diabetes, HIV-AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, jaundice, etc. were obtained and statistically analysed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square, Odds ratio with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used as a measure of strength of association and p ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. HBsAg sero-prevalence was 9.3% and of the 26 HBsAg positive women, 26 (100%) were positive HBcAB, 23 (88.5%) had HBeAb, four (15.4%) had HBeAg, and one (3.8%) had both HBeAg and HBeAb. Highest HBsAg prevalence (12.2%, p = 0.478) was recorded among women in age group 30–34 years old., and 11.5% or 35-39 years. Divorced/single mothers (20.0%, p = 0.826), women in their first trimester of pregnancy (15.4%, p = 0.868)., women whose husbands have multiple sexual partners (9.8%, p = 0.888)., body tattooing (p = 0.682)., illiterate women (18.2%, p = 0.470), history of blood transfusion (p = 0.249). High HBV endemicity in Nigeria requires highly Health Education programs on HBV transmission, risk factors and need of awareness at ANC Centres to limit the spread of infection.
Key Words:-Hepatitis B Virus, Infections, Serological markers, Pregnant Women, Bio-data, Risk Factors