Nanoparticles are classified as particles within the range of 1- 100nm and posses larger surface area. The properties of nanoparticles have been made use in a beneficial and positive manner which includes their uses mainly in the medical fields, imaging, targeted drug-delivery etc. Nanoparticles can even cross the natural defences of the body therefore; the deleterious effect cannot be neglected.
Calcium is the most abundant mineral element in the body and thus was the particle of 90 days experimental study. Calcium is an effective hypotensive agent. In an animal study it was found that high calcium diet helps lower body weight and fat content. Calcium holds role with regards with the cancer treatment. However, negative effect of calcium usage includes constipation, abdominal pain, and decrease blood pressure, arrest of cardiac and respiratory activities. Pharmacological studies reveal similarity between the action of calcium and digitalis. Also an increase in calcium level may cause magnesium deficiency by causing alterations in the normal magnesium: calcium ratio, which may subsequently be harmful to the lung function. Based on the fact experimental study of 90 days on calcium nanoparticle was conducted for its effect in the living system at NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) dose.
The preformed calcium nanoparticles were brought from the SRL laboratory and the nanoparticles were administered at the NOAEL dose rate of 1000 mg/kg body weight per-os. In the experiment two groups were made G1= control rats, G2= nano calcium treated. At every 30 days interval hematological examination was done and weights were measured for any alteration. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and the organs were preserved for presence of lesion and further histopathological study. The data observed were than subjected to analysis for alteration in the observation of the control rats with that of nano calcium treated rats.
At the end of the study all the data collected were subjected for analysis to reveal any changes due to daily intake of calcium nanoparticles. The observations were as followed ANC was increased by 73% while ALC and TLC were decreased by 6.4% and 1.39 % as compared to control rats at 90day. The calcium nanoparticles study revealed alteration in the serum biochemical analysis. For this total protein, albumin, globulin level were measured and was found to be decreased by 17.39%, 25.98% and 12.79% respectively when compared with the data obtained from the control rats at 90 days post treatment.
During the histopathology of the various organs, kidney showed marked changes with areas with hyaline degeneration. Thus from this preliminary study we can formulate that the calcium nanoparticles even at NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) dose have an inimical effects, however, further investigation in this regard is needed.
Keywords: Calcium nanoparticles, TLC, kidney degenration, biochemical analysis, albumin, globulin, total protein.