Received: December 18, 2018 Accepted: December 21, 2018 Published: December 22, 2018
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an ever-growing pandemic that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in later stages. Oral lesions are common in patients infected by the HIV virus and may indicate an impairment in the patient's general health status and consequently a poor prognosis. Many of these HIV-positive patients present manifestations involving the maxillofacial region in all stages of the disease, and, in some cases, the oral lesions are the first signs of infection. Moreover, some authors state that oral manifestations are the earliest sign of HIV infection. The various oral manifestations can be categorized into: Infections: bacterial, fungal, viral; neoplasms: Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; immune mediated: major aphthous, necrotizing stomatitis; others: parotid diseases, nutritional, xerostomia and oral manifestations as adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy. Oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia is "the most commonly occurring changes in the oral cavity in people suffering from side effects. Oral candidiasis can be considered as one of the first side signs. It can vary from an acute form that involves the entire oral cavity, and even other parts of the digestive system, to a chronic form with discrete changes, only on certain parts of the oral cavity. Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is more common among HIV-infected adults than among HIV-infected children. The reported prevalence of OHL in adults is about 20%-25%, increasing as the CD4+ lymphocyte count decreases, whereas in children the prevalence is about 2%-3%. The presence of OHL is a sign of severe immunosuppression. OHL is a significant predictor of HIV disease progression in adults. Although its etiology is not clear, OHL seems to be caused by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Oral lesions that are associated with this disease are important, since they affect the quality of life of the patient and are useful markers of disease progression and immunosuppression.. Almost all patients with HIV infection will contract oral diseases. Guidelines for recognizing, diagnosing, and managing these conditions are presented. Most conditions can be treated or alleviated through the combined efforts of the physician and the dentist.