Background: Cadaba farinosa forsk is a shrubby plant of the Capparidaceae family. Bioactive constituents of the stem bark contain high-quality resource antioxidants, anticarcinogens, and cytotoxic agents, include alkaloids and flavonoids considered effective for treating skin and breast cancers in Northeastern Nigeria. However, there is no single report of possible effects of stem bark extract of Cadaba farinosa forsk on the liver and kidney following chronic consumption. The widespread view that medicinal plants are safe being natural in origin necessitates the current study.
Aim and Objective: To determine the histopathological and biochemical effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Cadaba farinosa forsk on the liver and kidney following chronic consumption.
Materials and Methods: Thirty Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 180-200g were acquired from the Animal House of Department of Pharmacology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Sokoto State. The animals were assigned into five groups of six rats; Group I served as normal control and received distilled water without extract while Groups II, III, IV, and V received by gavages 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg of the extract for a period of 28 days. Animals were sacrificed, histopathological and biochemical analysis of the liver and kidney were determined with standard methods.
Results: Stem bark extract of Cadaba farinosa forsk increases the levels of liver enzymes in a dose dependent manner; this was corroborated by the histopathological changes showed ballooning degeneration, piece meal necrosis, and fatty liver, indicating hepatic injury. No histopathological or significant biochemical change was seen in the kidney.
Conclusion: Aqueous stem bark extract of Cadaba farinosa forsk causes hepatic injury. We speculate injuries to multiple organelles may contribute to this characteristic finding. Further study to be done to make certain whether reducing extract dose ameliorate adverse effects.
Key words: Cadaba farinosa, Stem bark, Liver, Kidney, Biochemical, Histopathology