Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a significant risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the elderly. Rapid urbanization and industrialization, together with the adoption of the modern lifestyle, adversely affect the health. It has brought new problems in the form of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). In many developing countries these new problems are arriving more common among the elderly leading to a double burden of the disease. The present study aimed to discuss the prevalence and risk factors of MetS in the urban elderly population of Tirupati, Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey is conducted among the elderly aged 60 years and above with a total of 295 participants (males: 108; females: 187). MetS defined using the modified adult treatment panel III (ATP III) criteria.
Results: Of the study participants, 34.58% had MetS. Abnormalities in blood pressure (BP), blood sugar, and waist circumference (WC) are the three most common risk factors for the onset of MetS. The odds ratio for MetS is higher with female sex, older age, and high body mass index (BMI) and lower with a higher education level. There are strong correlations found between BMI and WC, triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and WC and HDL-C.
Conclusions: The majority of the elderly population in Tirupati urban had at least two risk factors for MetS. Education and regular screening for the elderly are needed for early detection and management of risk factors to prevent evolvement to MetS and related chronic diseases.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Adult treatment panel III, Body mass index, Triglyceride