Since the discovery of the first antibiotic, penicillin, the employment of any novel antibiotic has been followed by the appearance of bacterial resistance to that antibiotic in a few years. Antibiotics have the ability to kill bacteria or inhibit their growth. Resistance to antibiotics is one of the biggest problems that global public health is facing. Antimicrobial resistance is not new, but the number of resistant organisms, the geographic locations affected by drug resistance, and the breadth of resistance in single organisms are mounting . Diseases and disease agents that were once thought to be controlled by antibiotics are returning in new leagues resistant to these therapies. In this review, we focus on the underlying principles and ecological factors that affect drug resistance in bacteria.
The agar diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial activities of Euphorbia hirta(EH) and Polygonum plebeium(PP) against S.aureus,B39. Ethyl acetate extract of Euphorbia hirta(EH) and Polygonum plebejum(PP),was the most effective solvent. MIC of plant extract Polygonum plebeium(PP) and Euphorbia hirta(EH) was 25mg/ ml. The antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of E. hirta(EH) and P. plebeium(PP) was more effective when incubated at 25°C for 10 min with MRSA, B39; pH 5 was more effective against MRSA, B39. Light condition for 24hr was effective against MRSA, B39, Static condition had slight effectiveness against MRSA, B39. Xylose exhibited the highest activity on MRSA, B39; no amino acids, metallic ions and vitamins were effective. Ethyl acetate extract of E. hirta(EH) was subjected to column chromatography and monitored with TLC, 5 spots were detected. Anti MRSA spots were identified as Hydroquinone and O-coumaric acid.
Keywords: MRSA, Euphorbia hirta, Polygonum Plebeium, Medicinal plants, Resistant bacteria