Evaluating Yield Performance and Morpho-agronomic Characters of Landraces and Released Varieties of selected Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes. The purpose of the study was to Evaluating Yield Performance and Morpho-agronomic Characters of Landraces and Released Varieties of selected Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes at Bale Zone, Agarfa Woreda, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Sixteen bread wheat varieties (8 of them farmers’ varieties and 8 of them improved varieties) were tested. The genotypes were grown in Randomized complete block design at Goro and Agarfa community seed bank in 2018/19. Analysis of variance revealed that there were highly significant differences among the genotypes for most of the traits at individual and across locations. From the combined analysis of variance, significant (p≤0.05) effect due to location, varieties and G×E was observed for most of the traits. The varieties showed wider variability in mean grain yield of 0.6.67--4 ton ha-1, 1.3-8.3 ton ha-1 and 0.67 – 8.33ton/ha at Goro, Agarfa and across location, respectively. PCV was higher than the genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV) in most of the traits. At Agarfa GCV ranged from 0.34% (aboveground biomass) to 689% (kernel number per spike), whereas PCV ranged from 0.4% (days to tillering) to 790% (kernel number per spike).At Goro GCV ranged from 2.23% (kernel number per spike) to 29.9% (grain yield), whereas PCV ranged from 2.6% (kernel number per spike) to 36.2% (grain yield). Phenotypic coefficient of variability ranged from 11.54% (day to emergence) to 70.28% (grain yield). Genotypic coefficient of variability ranged from 7.4% (days to emergence) to 46.13% (plant height).Highest heritability estimates were recorded (>80%) for the characters; days to heading (89.8%) and spikes length (82.9%),kernel per spike (87.2%),1000 seed weight(83.8%) and harvest index(348.9%) at Agarfa and plant height(95.7%), and spikes length (91.1%),at Goro. Similarly, the result from combined analysis indicated that Phenotypic coefficient of variability ranged from 11.54% (day to emergence) to 70.28% (grain yield). Genotypic coefficient t of variability ranged from 7.4% (days to emergence) to 46.13% (plant height). The expected genetic advance as the percent of means expressed as a percentage of the mean ranged from 0.72% for above ground biomass to 264.8% for 1000 kernel weight at Agarfa and at Goro the expected genetic advance expressed as a percentage of the mean ranged from 0.95% for spike length to 49.14% for grain yield. Grain yield showed significant (p≤0.01) positive phenotypic correlations with thousand kernels weight, above ground biomass, harvest index and plant height at each location. Similarly, significant (p≤0.01) positive and negative phenotypic and genotypic correlations between the yield components were observed at each location. The highest grain yield was recorded in Bokate variety (80.01kunt/hect and the lowest grain yield was recorded in Ayuba variety (16.67kunt/hect) from farmers varieties, while Hidase variety (61.67 kunt/hect) and Ejerso variety (35.01 kunt/hect) the highest and lowest grain yield from improved varieties at Agarfa location. In Goro the highest grain yield was recorded in Tikur goshmber variety (33.34kunt/hect and the lowest grain yield was recorded in Tate variety (11.67kunt/hect) from farmer’s varieties, while Kekeba variety (39.01kunt/hect) and Digalu variety (10.01kunt/hect) the highest and lowest grain yield from improved varieties. Generally, it has been observed the presence of variability among the genotypes, heritability and relationships in the tested traits of the genotypes studied. Hence, Selection and hybridization on farmers and released varieties based on the trait with high GCV, heritability, genetic advance, positive correlation coefficient and high grain yield can be recommended for farther yield improvement of bread wheat at respective location.
Keywords: Heritability, Genetic Advance, Correlation, Grain yield, Farmers’ varieties, Improved varieties.