Aim: The first purpose of treatment of periodontal disease and bone loss is to regenerate the lost structures and preserve the sound residual tissues. Different techniques and materials are utilized for alveolar bone loss treatment. This review summarizes the techniques and materials utilized fortreatment of alveolar bone loss due to periodontitis.
Materials and Methods: A search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases in March 2020. Totally, 133 studies were collected and reviewed, and finally, 32 studies were selected for the analysis: 6 systematic reviews, 21 clinical trials, and 1 guideline.
Results: Of 31 papers, 13 were about intra-bony defects, and others were about furcation involvement defects. Each article suggested different techniques and materials. Clinical parameters such as plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), gingival margin position (GMP) had been measured in studies, and a few techniques showed better results than others. Treatment of furcation defects is difficult in periodontal therapy. We should note that surgical procedures do not have any superiority over non-surgical procedures.
Conclusion: In conclusion, to decide about the best technique, site of defect, severity of disease, the available materials, and the clinician’s knowledge should be considered.