This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of M. tuberculosis (TB) and Drug Resistance (DR) from Sputum of patients attending Primary Health Care Centre (PHCC) Beji, Bosso Local Government Area of Niger State. TB screening was carried out using the Gene Expert Machine a molecular method while Determine, Unigold and Stat-pak was used for HIV screening according to the Nigerian algorithm (For HIV testing). Out of the Two Thousand Seven Hundred and two (2702) patients were enrolled, one hundred and fourty two (142:5.3%) were TB positive and were susceptible to the first line anti-tuberculosis drug; five (5) patients were resistant to the first line anti-tuberculosis drugs (Rifampicin). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) test was performed on patients amenably and the results revealed that eighteen (18) patients were reactive; six hundred and thirty one (631) patients were non-reactive while 21(3.3%) of them were TB positive, two thousand and thirty two (2032) were HIV unknown 118(8.8%) of them were TB positive. The results further discovered that co-infection of TB and HIV was 3(16.7%) patients while the five (5: 3.4%) patients that were resistant to the first line anti-tuberculosis drug(Multi Drug Resistant TB) were HIV unknown. The prevalence of patients with M.tuberculosis in the study was 142(5.3%), also, the prevalence of patients infected with TB was 3(2.1%) for HIV positive while 21(14.7%) for HIV Negative and 118(83.1%) for HIV unknown. However, statistical analysis revealed that, there was no significant relationship between HIV and non-HIV patients with TB in the study at (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the prevalence of 5.4% among patient living with TB in this rural area is high because TB bacilli is an aerosol bacteria that can be transmitted from an active TB patients to an healthy patient through air and so, any person with more than two weeks cough, night sweating, weight loss and appetite loss should be advised to visit the nearby hospital for TB test. Sensitization on the important of HIV screening should be done by Government, Health works or by other individuals.
Key words: Tuberculosis, Resistance, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Prevalence