Background: The aim of this study is to determine the most common aeroallergen and food allergen via the skin prick test.
Method: The study design was retrospective cross-sectional. Data was collected from the results of 155 patients that have undergone skin prick test during 2014-2015 in the allergy clinic at the University Hospital of Sharjah. Skin prick tests were performed with 15 aeroallergens selected based on the most common identifiable allergens in the region, and common 8 food allergens according to patient history. A mean wheal diameter of at least 3mm greater than the negative control was taken as positive: Analysis was conducted via SPSS version 22.
Results: The patients’ ages ranged from 2 months to 14 years (89 males, 66 females). From our study population 35.5% had allergic rhinitis, 16.8% had asthma symptoms, 25.2% had both asthma and allergic rhinitis, 10.3% had atopic dermatitis, and 12.3% had food allergy. Among those who were positive for aeroallergens, 86.3% were poly-sensitized and 13.6% were single sensitized. The most prevalent aeroallergens were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (38.7%), Dermatophagoides farinae (38.1%), Alternaria alternata (26.5%), Phleum prat timothy (22.6%), cladosprium (20.7%), aspergillus mix (18.1%), feather mix (17.4%), Russian thistle (15.5%), and cat fur (14.2%) cockroach (6.5%) (figure 2). Most common food allergens were Cow’s milk (43.6%), egg (43.6%), peanut (38.5%), almond (28.2%), and cashew nut (25.6%) (figure 3). Common allergens in the patients with different symptoms of atopic disorders were as follows: Allergic rhinitis (D.pteronyssinus), Asthma (D.pteronyssinus), atopic dermatitis (D.farinae, egg).
Conclusion:In conclusion, the most common aeroallergens identified based on skin prick test in the allergy clinic in the University Hospital of Sharjah, was house dust mites in all allergic diseases followed by molds, which corresponds with the results of similar studies conducted in our region. Molds’ sensitivity were seen more in allergic rhinitis than asthma. Identifying allergens plays an important role in management, giving appropriate allergen avoidance, and possible immunotherapy. Common allergic disease among our population was allergic rhinitis. Food allergy was also detected in our population. Data on food allergy scarce in UAE, further studies looking at food allergy prevalence is needed.