Infertility is one of the major emerging health issue worldwide. Infertility has taken the top second position among women’s health issues according to recent world health organization (WHO) survey. Among the numerous causes of infertility, premature ovarian failure (POF) ranks the second most common cause of infertility among women of childbearing age. There are a number of factors contributing to premature ovarian failure but a recently discovered factor yet the most common and increasing in trend is the early age of menarche.
As we are witnessing an increase in the number of girls attaining menarche at an earlier age, so is also the number of infertility issues among these girls. This current increasing trend of early age of menarche which is being experienced across the world has been linked to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome among young girls.
The reason for early age of menarche among girls with metabolic syndrome is the high serum levels of AMH (Anti-mullerian Hormone). AMH levels indicate the rate of ovarian follicle recruitment during peripubertal years, which corresponds to the timing of menarche. So high circulating levels of AMH in a young girl with metabolic syndrome will bring about menarche at an early age.
Early age of menarche in the context of high circulating serum AMH will cause more extensive follicular recruitment, which in turn leads to rapid follicular depletion and higher risk of diminished functional ovarian reserve (DFOR) at middle age- inspite of initial large ovarian follicle reserve. Now a days as there is an increase in the number of girls attaining menarche at a younger age than normal, so is also the number of POF issues. As POF is an irreversible phenomenon, it is high time we educate our younger generation girls to adapt a healthier lifestyle and food habits to reduce the incidence of metabolic syndrome and the consequent infertility in later life.
Keywords: Infertility, Premature ovarian failure (POF), Anti-mullerian Hormone (AMH)