Mangrove forests are one of Indonesia's most extensive forest ecosystems, reaching 27% (16 million ha) of the world's total mangrove forests. Mangrove forest vegetation provides quite a lot of benefits for human life, including a source of medicine. Based on the investigation, the mangrove forests of Polaria Tanjung Pagar, Sungai Kunyit Sub-District, Mempawah Regency showed the potential therapeutic traditionally but not yet scientifically justified. This study aimed to analyze the secondary metabolite components of medicinal plants in Polaria Tanjung Pagar's mangrove forests and analyze cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines. This study's primary materials were the leaves of several medicinal plants obtained from Polaria Tanjung Pagar's mangrove forests, including Bruguiera cylindrica, Aegiceras corniculatum, Acrostichum aureum, Avicennia alba, and Rhizophora mucronata. Extraction was carried out through the maceration method using methanol as the solvent. The thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method was a qualitative analysis of these secondary metabolites at 366 nm UV. Cytotoxicity analysis by testing methanol extract of medicinal plant leaves from mangrove forests using the MTT assay method against three types of cancer cell lines. Those cell lines were including humans' cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines, breast (T47D) cancer cell lines, and colon (WiDr) cancer cell lines. All five methanolic extracts positively contained flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, steroids, phenolics, and tannins but did not contain alkaloid compounds. Mangrove plants with an active cytotoxic activity against HeLa cancer cells were Aegiceras corniculatum (IC50 of 49.40 ± 5.85 µg/mL) and Avicennia alba (IC50 of 74.75 ± 26.97 µg/mL). Mangrove plants actively cytotoxic against T47D cancer cell lines were Aegiceras corniculatum (IC50 of 78.12 ± 11.38 µg/mL) and Avicennia alba (IC50 of 50.76 ± 9.92 µg/mL). Meanwhile, Aegiceras corniculatum, Acrostichum aureum, Avicennia alba, and Rhizophora mucronate were showed an active cytotoxicity activity against WiDr cancer cell lines with IC50 about 45.60 ± 7.35 µg/mL, 89.19 ± 4.22 µg/mL, 73.25 ± 17.63 µg/mL, and 57.49 ± 11.70 µg/mL, respectively. Mangrove forest plants scientifically potentially developed as medicinal material for Cancer.
Keywords: Cytotoxicity, HeLa Cancer Cells, T47D Cancer Cells, WiDR Cancer Cells, Mangrove Forest