Carcinoma of the urinary bladder is the most common malignancy in the Middle East and parts of Africa where schistosomiasis is a widespread problem. Much evidence supports the association between schistosomiasis and bladder cancer: this includes the geographical correlation between the two conditions, the distinctive patterns of gender and age at diagnosis, the clinicopathological identity of schistosome-associated bladder cancer, and extensive evidence in experimentally infected animals. Multiple factors have been suggested as causative agents in schistosome-associated bladder carcinogenesis. Of these, N-nitroso compounds appear to be of particular importance since they were found at high levels in the urine of patients with schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer. Various strains of bacteria that can mediate nitrosation reactions leading to the formation of N-nitrosamines have been identified in the urine of subjects with schistosomiasis at higher intensities of infection than in normal subjects. Due to the increase in population and the demand for food supply there has been an increase in irrigation and construction of dams, these have aided the spread of schistosomiasis.
Aim of the study: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among irrigation farmers in Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau state, North central Nigeria to understand the potential of developing carcinoma of the bladder among irrigation farmers in the study area.
Materials and method: A total of 150 irrigation farmers gave consent to be part of the study. Each of the participant was given a sterile universal container and adequately instructed on how to submit 10ml of urine specimen including the first and the last portion of the specimen. Participant’s demographic information were obtained by administration of structured questionnaires.This study was conducted between December 2010 and March 2011. Urine specimens were examined using macroscopy, deep stick, filtration and sedimentation techniques.
Result: Out of 150 urine specimens examined 28 (18.7%) were positive for Schistosomiasis haematobium. The highest prevalence of infections were recorded among participants within the age group of 21-30; 11(19.0%), There was no significance difference in the occurrence of infection in relation to age group (P>0.05). Male participants had a higher prevalence 27 (18.9%)compared to their females counterparts 1(14.2%) although, the relationship between rate of infection and gender was not statistically significant (P>0.05).Deyi village recorded a higher prevalence of 23(20.0%) compared to Zawan village 5(16.7%).Conclusion:The study has revealed the presence of Urinary Schistosomiasisin Deyi and Du villages of Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau state in North central Nigeria. Filtration techniques is still the gold standard of detecting urinary schistosomiasis. Therefore we advocate Government intervention especially in the area of chemotherapy of infected persons with praziquantel, regular screening of people who are at risk of contracting infection and public health awareness with respect to disease transmission as these will go a long way to halt the cycle of transmission in the studied areas.
Keywords: Prevalence, Urinary Schistosomiasis, irrigationfarmers.