Background: The impact of novel corona virus and its morbidity had wide range of systemic complications and one such complications in on antenatal pathology. Several studies had been carried on systemic lesions, the sequelae of placental pathology on post covid exposure is sparse. Translational research had postulated that placental abnormalities observed on histopathological features could serve as a potential surrogate marker in reflecting the intra uterine changes occurred due to Covid infection.
Objective: We had intended to describe the histopathologic findings in the placentas of women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during pregnancy.
Results: Twenty five placentas from patients with coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were examined (23 with live birth in the third trimester, 2 delivered in the second trimester after intrauterine fetal demise). Compared to normal cases (as controls), third trimester placentas were significantly showed features of maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM), significantchorangiosis in adjunction with abnormal or injured maternal vessels, and intervillous thrombi. Proportion of inflammatory cell infiltrates were also increased substantially in majority of cases.The placenta from the patient with intrauterine fetal demise showed villous edema as well as retroplacental hematoma.
Conclusion: COVID-19 placentas show increased prevalence of placental abnormality in form of vascular malperfusionin maternal and fetal vasculature in equal proportions and arterial degeneration reflecting abnormalities in oxygenation within the intervillous space associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. These changes could be postulated as a surrogate indication of systemic inflammatory or hypercoagulable state influencing placental physiological aspects.
Keywords: COVID-19, Placental pathology, Maternal vascular malperfusion