Background- Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a form of atypical pneumonia cause by novel corona virus(SARS-CoV).The outbreak is occurred in Hong-Kong in 2003 .The resurgence of outbreak is happened in winter period.
Aims- To review the sputum cytology of patients who fulfilled the world health organized clinical criteria for SARS in on attempt to evaluate whether early diagnosis is feasible with routine sputum cytological and pathological examination.
Method – All sputum samples from patients with SARS from the four major hospital in Hong Kong were identified .The diagnostic criteria for SARS-CoV were based on WHO recommendation. The control group comprised sputum sample from age matched patients. The abnormalities were sought in the cellular component, including abnormal numbers and morphology of component cells compared with those from age matched controls taken over the same period one year ago.
Result- Fifteen sputum samples from patients were compared with 25 control samples in the patients with SARS infected patients. The loose aggregate of macrophages were seen in the sputum. These macrophages showed morphological changes such as cytoplasmic foaminess, vacuole formation, and nuclear change (including multinucleation and a ground glass appearance) when compared with the control samples. The sputum of SARS –CoV infected patients have more changes in sputum microscopy and in control group have very less changes,
Conclusion- Loose aggregate of macrophages were seen in the sputum of SARS infected patients taken in study. These macrophages frequently showed morphological changes such as cytoplasmic foaminess, vacuole formation, and nuclear change. Sputum cytology is routinely done for nearly all patients with chest symptoms .The presence of sputum microscopic morphology suggestive of severe acute respiratory syndrome.