Chronic wound has continued to pose a big health challenge with a concomitant effect on the economic and social status of patients with compromised immune system. There is an urgent need to develop an effective drug that would facilitate rapid wound healing in such individuals. To investigate the wound healing properties of extract and fractions of Newbouldia leavis root bark in immunocompromsed albino rats, excision wound model was adopted. However, this study assessed the wound healing activities of chloroform extract, n-hexane (NLHF) and ethylacetate (NLEAF) fractions of Newbouldia leavis root bark in 5-fluorouracil-induced immunocompromised rats. 5-flourouracil (30mg/kg) was used to induce immunosuppression. The extract, fractions and reference drug (silver sulphadiazene) were topically applied for 15 days. Significant (p<0.05) increases in rate of wound contraction, elevated levels of hydroxyproline, hexosamine and hexuronic acid were observed in treated groups when compared with the untreated groups of immunocompromised rats. The extract (40%) significantly enhanced wound healing with the highest percentage of wound contraction of 98.68 at day 12 when compared with groups treated with silver sulphadiazene(95.48%), 40% NLHF(77.04%) and 40% NLEAF(88.83%). The rats treated with NLEAF significantly (p<0.05) enhanced wound healing activity as shown by the increased rate of wound contraction, hydroxyproline, hexosamine and hexuronic acid concentrations compared to the group that received NLHF. It could be stated that Newbouldia leavis extract and fractions significantly promoted wound healing and were able to overcome the wound healing suppressing effect of 5-flourouracil.
Keywords: Wounds, 5-flourouracil, Immunosuppression, Newbouldia leavis, Silver sulphadiazene