Superficial fungal infections are one among the most common fungal diseases in the world. The prevalence of superficial mycotic infections has risen to such a level that it affects more than 20-25% of the world’s population. Dermatophytosis is common in tropical countries like India and may reach epidemic proportions in areas with high rate of humidity and over population and poor hygienic conditions. Skin infection due to Dermatophytes has become a significant health problem affecting children, adolescents and adults. The present study was undertaken to isolate, identify and determine the antifungal susceptibility of various fungal agents causing mycoses among the patients attending the Dermatology out patient (OP) Chettinad hospital and Research institute.
Clinical samples from 200 patients were subjected to KoH examination and culture isolation. Causative agents were identified by colony morphology, pigment production and by microscopic examination. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done by broth dilution detecting the minimum inhibitory concentration. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) was used for confirming the speciation of Dermatophytes.
Total of 200 specimens were collected from clinically suspected dermatophytosis patients. Among 200 specimens cultured 98 dermatophytes were isolated and 12 non dermatophytic fungus were isolated which includes 5 isolates of Candida albicans and 7 isolates of Candida non albicans. Identification of all Dermatophyte isolates were confirmed by PCR – RFLP molecular method.
The study signifies the importance of mycological examination in the diagnosis of various mycoses for their effective management. It is concluded that causative fungal agent for cutaneous mycoses in addition to Dermatophytes and non Dermatophytes fungi candida species also play a important role. PCR – RFLP has revolutionized diagnostic microbiology and its helps to arrive at a more specific diagnosis for dermatophytosis. Minimum inhibitory concentration need to be correlated with clinical outcome to develop interpretive breakpoint, which may specify the cause for lack of clinical response and detection of resistance. Terbinafine was found to be the most potent drug for treating dermatophytic infections.